FortiManager (Series) - (Bookmark) Persistent Vulnerability

From: Vulnerability Lab <>
Subject: FortiManager (Series) - (Bookmark) Persistent Vulnerability

Document Title:
FortiManager (Series) - (Bookmark) Persistent Vulnerability

References (Source):

Fortinet PSIRT ID: 1624461

Release Notes 1:
Release Notes 2:
Release Notes 3:

Release Date:

Vulnerability Laboratory ID (VL-ID):

Common Vulnerability Scoring System:

Product & Service Introduction:
FortiManager appliances allow you to centrally manage any number of Fortinet devices, from several to thousands, including FortiGate®, FortiWiFi\u201e, 
FortiCarrier\u201e, FortiMail\u201e and FortiAnalyzer\u201e appliances and virtual appliances, as well as FortiClient\u201e endpoint security agents. You can further 
simplify control and management of large deployments by grouping devices and agents into administrative domains (ADOMs).

The FortiManager family of management appliances provides centralized policy-based provisioning, device configuration, and update management for 
FortiGate, FortiWiFi, and FortiMail appliances, and FortiClient end-point security agents, plus end-to-end network monitoring and device control. 
FortiManager delivers a lower TCO for Fortinet implementations by minimizing both initial deployment costs and ongoing operating expenses. Control 
administrative access and simplify policy deployment using role-based administration to define user privileges for specific management domains and 
functions, and aggregating collections of Fortinet appliances and agents into independent management domains. In addition, by locally hosting security 
content updates for managed devices and agents, FortiManager appliances minimize Web filtering rating request response time and maximize network protection.

(Copy of the Vendor Homepage: )

Abstract Advisory Information:
The Vulnerability Laboratory Core Research Team discovered a persistent web validation vulnerability in the official Fotinet FortiManager appliance product series.
The issue affects the web-application of the appliance series and is present in the following fortimanager models - 200D,  300D, 1000D, 
3900E, 4000E, Virtual Appliances Version and FortiMoM-VM. The Fortimanager legacy models 100, 100C, 400A, 400B, 400C, 1000C, 3000C and 4000D are 
affected as well by the vulnerability.

 Persistent Web

Vulnerability Disclosure Timeline:
2016-01-25: Researcher Notification & Coordination (Benjamin Kunz Mejri - Evolution Security GmbH)
2016-01-26: Vendor Notification (FortiGuard Security Team)
2016-02-15: Vendor Response/Feedback (FortiGuard Security Team)
2016-04-08: Vendor Fix/Patch (Fortinet Developer Team)
2016-05-22: Vendor Fix/Patch (Fortinet Developer Team)
2016-07-13: Security Bulletin (FortiGuard Security Team) [Acknowledgements]
2016-08-04: Public Disclosure (Vulnerability Laboratory)

Discovery Status:

Affected Product(s):
Product: FortiManager - Appliance (Web-Application) 200D,  300D, 1000D,  3900E, 4000E, Virtual Appliances Versio

Product: FortiManager - Appliance (Web-Application) Legacy - 100, 100C, 400A, 400B, 400C, 1000C, 3000C & 4000

Exploitation Technique:

Severity Level:

Technical Details & Description:
A persistent and non-persistent input validation web vulnerability has been discovered in the official Fotinet FortiManager appliance product series.
The vulnerability allows privileged guest user accounts and restricted user accounts to inject own malicious script codes on the application-side or 
client-side of the fortimanager appliance web-application series.

The vulnerability is located in the `name and description` input fields of the vulnerable `Policy & Objects - Security Profiles - SSL VPN Portal` module. 
The request method to inject is POST to GET and the attack vector is located on the application-side of the appliance web-application. Remote attackers 
are able to inject own malicious script codes to the name and description input fields. After processing to add, the code bypasses the regular web filter 
of the appliance web-application and executes finally in the pre-defined bookmarks listing module above with the basic input. The vulnerability can be 
exploited by guest appliance user accounts with restricted access. The vulnerability first executes with client-side attack vector and becomes persistent 
with the save procedure by return.

The security risk of the application-side and client-side web vulnerability is estimated as medium with a cvss (common vulnerability scoring system) count of 3.8. 
Exploitation of the application-side web vulnerability requires a low privileged guest web-application user account and low user interaction. Successful exploitation 
of the vulnerability results in persistent phishing, session hijacking, persistent external redirect to malicious sources and application-side manipulation of affected 
or connected web module context.

Request Method(s):
                                       [+] POST

Vulnerable Module(s):
                                    [+] Policy & Objects - Security Profiles - SSL VPN Portal

Vulnerable Parameter(s):
                                   [+] name
                                   [+] description

Affected Module(s):
                                       [+] Predefined Bookmarks - [Create] Listing

Affected Serie(s): FortiManager
                                       [+] FortiManager 200D
                                      [+] FortiManager 300D
                                      [+] FortiManager 1000D
                                     [+] FortiManager 3900E
                                     [+] FortiManager-4000E
                                     [+] FortiManager Virtual Appliances
                                        [+] FortiMoM-VM

FortiManager Legacy Models
                                        [+] FortiManager 100
                                       [+] FortiManager 100C
                                      [+] FortiManager 400A
                                      [+] FortiManager 400B
                                      [+] FortiManager 400C
                                      [+] FortiManager 1000C
                                     [+] FortiManager 3000C
                                     [+] FortiManager 4000D

Proof of Concept (PoC):
The persistent input validation web vulnerability can be exploited by low privileged guest web-application user accounts with low user interaction.
For security demonstration or to reproduce the vulnerability follow the provided information and steps below to continue.

Manual steps to reproduce the vulnerability as guest user with restricted access privileges ...
1.  Login to the fortimanager appliance web-application as guest user
2.  Open the following section that is not restricted to guests mainly (http://fortimanager.localhost:8000/cgi-bin/module//sharedobjmanager/vpn/SOMVpnSSLPortalDialog)
3.  Click Security Profiles > SSL VPN Portal
4.  Now click the pre-defined Bookmarks button ahead to the listing
5.  Add your test payload to verify the issue in the Name and Description input field
6.  Save the entry
7.  The code executes in the Pre-Defined Bookmarks listing context in two locations
8.  Save the entry by return again
9.  Now you reopen the post to edit the pre-defined bookmarks
10. A second execution of the payload occurs in the edit form next to the category entry
11. Successful reproduce of the persistent vulnerability!

PoC: Source #1 - Policy & Objects > Security Profiles > SSL VPN Portal > Predefined Bookmarks > [Create] Listing
<tbody><tr class="heading"><th>Name</th><th>Type</th><th>Location</th><th>Description</th><th></th></tr>
<tr class="bk-cate"><td style="text-align: left; padding-left: 20px;" colspan="5" class="bk-cate-expand">Bookmarks</td></tr>
<tr class="bk-cate"><td style="text-align: left; padding-left: 20px;" colspan="5" class="bk-cate-expand">">
<td>"><"<[PERSISTENT SCRIPT CODE EXECUTION!]>"</td><td>SSH</td><td>benjamin-km</td><td>[PERSISTENT SCRIPT CODE EXECUTION!]</td><td>
<nobr><img src="/resource/images/edit.gif" onclick="edit_bookmark(this);"> <img src="/resource/images/delete.gif" onclick="del_bookmark(this);">

PoC: Source #2 - Edit Form (Category)
<div id="bAutoComplete" style="z-index:9001;"><input id="bkcate" name="bkcate" value=""><"<[PERSISTENT SCRIPT CODE EXECUTION!] sr"="" maxlength="35" 
style="position:static;background: url(/resource/images/tabOption.gif) center right no-repeat #FFF;"><div id='bContainer'></div></div></td></tr><tr>
<td  style='padding:3px;'>Name</td><td><input id='bkname' name='bkname' value=""><"<[PERSISTENT SCRIPT CODE EXECUTION!]" maxlength=35 ></td></tr><tr>
<td style='padding:3px;'>Type</td><td><select id='bktype' name='bktype'><option value=9 >CITRIX</option><option value=4 >FTP</option><option value=1 >
HTTP/HTTPS</option><option value=11 >Port Forward</option><option value=8 >RDP</option><option value=10 >RDP NATIVE</option><option value=6 >SMB/CIFS
</option><option value=3 selected>SSH</option><option value=2 >Telnet</option><option value=7 >VNC</option></select></td></tr><tr><td style='padding:3px;'>
Location</td><td><input id='bkloc' name='bkloc' value="benjamin-km" maxlength=128></td></tr><tr id='tr_rport'><td style='padding:3px;'>Remote Port</td><td>
<input id='bkrport' name='bkrport' value="0"  maxlength=5></td></tr><tr id='tr_lport'><td style='padding:3px;'>Listening Port</td><td>
<input id='bklport' name='bklport' value="0"  maxlength=5></td></tr><tr id='tr_sw'><td style='padding:3px;'>Screen Width</td><td><input id='bksw' 
name='bksw' value="1024"  maxlength=4></td></tr><tr id='tr_sh'><td style='padding:3px;'>Screen Height</td><td><input id='bksh' name='bksh' value="768"
  maxlength=4></td></tr><tr id='tr_usr'><td style='padding:3px;'>Logon User</td><td><input id='bkusr' name='bkusr' value=""  maxlength=35></td></tr>
<tr id='tr_pswd'><td style='padding:3px;'>Password</td><td><input id='bkpswd' name='bkpswd' type='password' value=""><input id='bkpswdflag' name='bkpswdflag' 
type='hidden' value=0></td></tr><tr id='tr_kbd'><td style='padding:3px;'>Keyboard Layout</td><td><select id='bkkbd' name='bkkbd'><option value=0 >Arabic</option>
<option value=1 >Danish</option><option value=2 >German</option><option value=3 >German, Switzerland</option><option value=4 >English, Great Britain</option>
<option value=5 >English, United Kingdom</option><option value=6 selected>English, US</option><option value=7 >Spanish</option><option value=8 >Finnish</option>
<option value=9 >French</option><option value=10 >French, Belgium</option><option value=11 >French, Canada</option><option value=12 >French, Switzerland</option>
<option value=13 >Croatian</option><option value=14 >Hungarian</option><option value=15 >Italian</option><option value=16 >Japanese</option><option value=17 >
Lithuanian</option><option value=18 >Latvian</option><option value=19 >Macedonian</option><option value=20 >Norwegian</option><option value=21 >Polish</option>
<option value=22 >Portuguese</option><option value=23 >Portuguese, Brazil</option><option value=24 >Russian</option><option value=25 >Slovenian</option>
<option value=26 >Swedish</option><option value=27 >Turkmen</option><option value=28 >Turkish</option><option value=29 >French, Canadian Multilingual</option>
<option value=30 >Windows Generic Keyboard</option></select></td></tr><tr><td style='padding:3px;'>Description</td><td><input id='bkdesc' name='bkdesc' value="">
<"<[PERSISTENT SCRIPT CODE EXECUTION!]>"  maxlength=128></td></tr><tr id='tr_fsm'><td style='padding:3px;'>Full Screen Mode</td><td><input id='bkfsm' 
name='bkfsm' type='checkbox' value=1 checked></td></tr><tr id='tr_disp'><td style='padding:3px;'>Display Status</td><td><input id='bkdisp' name='bkdisp' 
type='checkbox' value=1 checked></td></tr><tr id='tr_sso'><td style='padding:3px;'>SSO</td><td><select id='bksso' name='bksso'><option value=0 selected>Disabled</option>
<option value=1 >Static</option><option value=2 >AUTO</option></select></td></tr><tr id='tr_value_form'><td style='padding:3px;' colspan='2'><table id='bookmark-form-data' 
style='width:100%;'><thead style='font-weight:bold;'><tr><th style='width:144px;'>Field Name</th><th><span style='width:144px;display:inline-block;'>Value</span><input 
id='add_fv_row' type='button' value='Add' style='width:70px;'></th></tr></thead><tbody id='fv_tbody'></tbody></table></tr></table></form></iframe></div>

--- PoC Session Logs [GET] (Execution) ---
Status: 200[OK]
GET http://fortimanager.localhost:8000/cgi-bin/module//sharedobjmanager/vpn/x[PERSISTENT SCRIPT CODE EXECUTION!]
Mime Type[text/html]
   Request Header:
      User-Agent[Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64; rv:43.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/43.0]
      Cookie[remoteauth=1; forRevert=0; vmConfirm=1; tabPosition=; showSlave=1; add_dev_later=; auth_state=; CURRENT_SESSION=9X3lvcNst3VYkYtkLWMkgMagWkS+Qmdk38eDLl1jE+ZNJ7Dw
/9EQlVtauZ98+4+nN5aOe5ixbZGoE/sIrlNbRQ==; MCP_VIEW_MODE=sectview; csrftoken=ea5a7a467e8cabdfe640cd475183d2a5]
   Response Header:
      Date[Tue, 26 Jan 2016 12:48:10 GMT]
Status: 200[OK]GET http://fortimanager.localhost:8000/cgi-bin/module//sharedobjmanager/vpn/a[PERSISTENT SCRIPT CODE EXECUTION!]
Mime Type[text/html]
   Request Header:
      User-Agent[Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; WOW64; rv:43.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/43.0]
      Cookie[remoteauth=1; forRevert=0; vmConfirm=1; tabPosition=; showSlave=1; add_dev_later=; auth_state=; CURRENT_SESSION=9X3lvcNst3VYkYtkLWMkgMagWkS+Qmdk38eDLl1jE+
ZNJ7Dw/9EQlVtauZ98+4+nN5aOe5ixbZGoE/sIrlNbRQ==; MCP_VIEW_MODE=sectview; csrftoken=ea5a7a467e8cabdfe640cd475183d2a5]
   Response Header:
      Date[Tue, 26 Jan 2016 12:48:10 GMT]


Solution - Fix & Patch:
Updates are available for customers in the fortinet customer area or via automated appliance update.

5.0.12 (FMG) 
5.0.13 (FAZ)

Security Risk:
The security risk of the persistent input validation web vulnerability in the fortimanager web-application is estimated as medium. (CVSS 3.8)

Credits & Authors:
Vulnerability Laboratory [Research Team] - Benjamin Kunz Mejri ( []

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